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ThePoultrySite Quick Disease Guide

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Contents of Quick Disease Guide

Trichomoniasis, Canker, Frounce

Extracted From:
A Pocket Guide to
Poultry Health
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By Paul McMullin
© 2004
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Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite of pigeons and doves (canker), raptors (frounce), turkeys and chickens. It has variable pathogenicity. Morbidity is high and mortality varies but may be high. Transmission is via oral secretions in feed and water, and crop milk.


  • Mouth open.
  • Drooling and repeated swallowing movements.
  • Loss of conditon.
  • Watery eyes in some birds.
  • Nervous symptoms (rare).

Post-mortem lesions

  • Yellow plaques and raised cheesy masses in mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and proventriculus.
  • Raptors may have liver lesions.


Lesions, large numbers of protozoa in secretions. Differentiate from Pox and candidiasis.


Previously approved products included dimetridazole, nithiazide, and enheptin. Organic arsenical compounds (where approved) and some herbal products may be of some benefit in managing this problem in food animals.


Eliminate stagnant water, eliminate known carriers, add no new birds.

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